High Quality

Low Cost

Software Inspections

the book

 Recent Reviews of the book

WB01339_.gif (896 bytes) The Book

WB01339_.gif (896 bytes)Why Read This Book? 

WB01339_.gif (896 bytes) Who is This Book For?       

WB01339_.gif (896 bytes) Topics Covered

WB01339_.gif (896 bytes) How To Order

WB01339_.gif (896 bytes) Price      

WB01339_.gif (896 bytes) What Will You Learn?

WB01339_.gif (896 bytes) The Author

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High Quality

Low Cost

Software Inspections


 Ronald A. Radice

 Principal Partner

Software Technology Transition  


Visiting Scientist

Software Engineering Institute

Carnegie Mellon University

Capers Jones


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Recent Reviews

You'll want to read this book after reading these reviews":

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Why Read This Book?

You'll want to read this book.

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What Will You Learn

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The Author

Ronald A. Radice is the principal partner in Software Technology Transition, a company that provides training, consulting services, assessment services, and software engineering methods and tools. He is a past Director of the Software Process Program at the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) at Carnegie Mellon University. He developed the Inspection process with Mike Fagan in IBM, has taught Inspections worldwide, and has used Inspections for 28 years with numerous clients worldwide. He worked at IBM for 23 years in technical and managerial positions. Ron has written two previous books: Software Engineering: An Industrial Approach and ISO 9001: Interpreted for Software Organizations.  From 1984 to 1988 Ron taught software engineering on the graduate level at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

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Who is This Book For?

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Topics covered: 

Chapter 1 : Background 

Why Inspections?

Inspection Preconditions 

So Why Isn’t Everyone Using Inspections? 

Do Good Programmers Make Defects?

Do Good Managers Foster Defects? 

Is There Any Way To Control Defect Injection? 

Common Questions 

An Historical Perspective 

Early Experiences

First Inspections

Another Approach to Success

Chapter 2 : Introduction 

What Is An Inspection?

The Process Model Used In This Book 

Primary Purpose

Ancillary Purposes 

Where Do Inspections Fit In The Software Development Process? 

The Costs Of Inspections 

Differences from Manufacturing Inspections

Inspections Compared To Walk-throughs And Reviews 

Effectiveness And Efficiency

Defect Detection and Defect Prevention 

Feedback, Feed-forward, and Control

Characteristics of  Inspections

What Inspections Are Not

Summary Of Benefits From Inspections

Chapter 3 : Inspection Process

Flow of the Inspection process 

Planning and Scheduling 



Inspection Meeting 

Analysis Meeting 



Prevention Meeting

Data Recording and Reports 

Inspection Process Monitoring 

Chapter 4 : Moderator

Qualities of Good Moderators 

Activities To Be Performed By The Moderator:

Code Of Conduct For Moderators

Moderator Pools

Moderating in 1:1 Inspections 

Online Inspections

Moderator Checklist

Moderator’s Inspection Meeting Checklist

Chapter 5 : Other Roles 

Primary Inspector Roles 

Other Roles Which May Be Useful During An Inspection

How To Choose Participants 

Training For Participants

Other Possible Participants

Viewpoints To Consider For Role Assignment

Rules Of Behavior For Effective Meetings

Small Projects 

Psychology of Inspections

Organization Types 

Participant Personalities 

Culture Change 

Hidden Agendas 

Chapter 6 : Inspection Data 

Why Gather Data?

Goal Setting

 Specific Data To Be Collected For Inspections


Defect Classifications


Effort, Time, and Cost

Other Inspection Data 

How Precise Must the Data Be?

How Long Do We Have To Wait To Get User Data?

Inspection Data Tools

What Data Should Be Analyzed? 

Defect Density

Issues versus Defects 

Defect Distribution 

Inspection Meeting Rate 

Preparation Rate 

Inspection Meeting Efficiency

Error Prone Modules 

Inspection Effectiveness 


Feedback To All In The Organization 

Frequent Types of Reports 

Still Other Reports 

Chapter 7 : Causal Analysis

What Is Cause Analysis? 

The Systems View 

How To Do Cause Analysis 

Pareto Analysis

Which Errors Should Be Analyzed First

Propagation Of Cause Knowledge 

Can You/Should You Analyze All Defects? 

Analysis Meeting 

Defect Prevention 

Personal Defect Prevention 

Process Prevention Meeting

Chapter 8 : Re-Inspections 

Criteria To Trigger A Re-Inspection 

Defect Density 

Large Work Products

Inspection Rate 

Preparation Rate

Change Volume from Defects Found 


Error Removal History 

Change History


Quality Of The Inspection

Moderator Decision 

Group Consensus 

When To Decide For A Re-Inspection 

When To Stop Re-Inspecting?

Re-Work Versus Re-Structure Recommendations 

Re-Inspections After The Product Goes Into Test Or To The User

Chapter 9 : Economics of Inspections  

The Cost Of Defects 

How Defective Is Software?

Can Inspections Replace Test?

Adjusting Test Based On Inspection Results 

Removing The Inspection Meeting 

Inspecting Only Defective Work Products

Can The Number Number Defects in Test Be Predicted? 

Inspections Viewed As An Up Front Capital Cost

Inspection Cost Curves Versus Alternate Detection Stages 

Cost Of Inspections As A Percentage Of Project Costs

Calculating Cost Savings

Productivity Improvements 

Calculating Effectiveness

Preparation Rate As An Effectiveness Factor

Can Inspections Be 100% Effective? 

Will All Inspections Find The Same Number Of Defects? 

Cost Of Maintenance 

Costs To The Customers

Should All Work Products Be Inspected? 

What To Do When Inspections Go Bad 

How Long Will It Take To Be Successful? 

Prevention, Appraisal, And Failure Costs 

Chapter 10 : Managing Inspections  



Providing Funding and  Resources 

Take Action To Achieve Goals 

Monitor Progress 


Inspection Principles For Managers

Inspection Coordinator

SQA Responsibilities

Inspection Champion

Chapter 11 : Practical Issues  

Issues That Affect Effectiveness 

When Is An Inspection Finished? 

Best Place To Start First

When Can Inspections of Work Products Be Put Aside? 

The Right People 

Inspections Don't Make People Feel Warm Fuzzies 

Team Is Split Across Locations

Helping Programmers To Learn From Their Errors, Or Time To Reflect

Permanent Inspection Teams 

Competence Paying For Incompetence 

Small Teams 

Get Off To A Good Start

Inspecting Changes

"Yes, of course, we do Inspections!"

Would All The Problems Found By Inspections, Eventually Have Been Found By The Users?

No Previous State To Inspect Against

If You Find The Defect, Fix It

Bureaucratic Data Collection

Inspections Are Too Formalized 

Inspections Are A Time Waster

Redundancy With The Test Processes 

Arbitrary Style Viewpoints Come Up During Inspections 

“Reading” Has Limited Value Versus Debugging In Execution 

Knowledge Of The Design Is Required To Do Code Inspections

Only Superficial Errors Are Found

Inspecting Too Much 

Performance Characteristics Are Not Addressed 

“Not the way I would have done it.” As An Attitude During Inspections

Can We Do Less Formal Inspections In Some Organization? 

Customers Seem To Be Willing To Live With “Good Enough” Software Solutions If They Can Get The Function Earlier, So Why Inspect? 

There Are Many Successful Companies That Do Not Use Inspections 

Modified Code Is Too Costly To Inspect

But It Seems Unreasonable To Inspect Deleted Code 

Inspections Will Reveal Other Process Problems 

Some Inspectors Don’t Contribute 

We Tried Inspections And They Didn’t Work

Do Organizations Stop Inspecting? 

Deadly Sins Of Inspections 

Chapter 12 : What to Inspect 

Typical Software Work Products 

Systems Engineering 

Other Work Products

Checklists and Focus Areas 

Chapter 13 : Other Approaches 



Producer Self-Checking, Self-Review, Or Desk Check 

Two-Person Inspection

N-Fold Inspections 

Formal Technical Review  


Inspection Characteristics 

Chapter 14 : Inspections Future

Improvements In Work Product Format/Presentation 

Program Reading

Formal Methods



Verifying The Process And The Product

Where Do Defects Come From? 

100% Effectiveness 

Selective Inspections 


Reducing The Number of Inspectors 

The Professional Programmer

Defect Prevention

Will Inspections Become Obsolete? 

Recommendations from An Advocate 

Is Software Becoming More Complex?

Aspects of a Best Case Inspection Process    

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How To Order

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Please send me: ___ copies of High Quality Low Cost Software Inspections, by Ronald A. Radice at $39.95 (was $59.95), plus $5.00 shipping in USA, $15.00 outside the USA. Massachusetts residents please add 5% sales tax. If charging to your credit card, you will be debited at the time the book is shipped to you. In all cases, you have a 15-day return privilege after receipt of book, for any reason.  

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Last modified: September 29, 2011